What is a lead-acid battery?
Lead-acid batteries are one of the oldest rechargeable batteries to be invented. It has a high power to weight ratio despite its small energy to volume and low energy. These batteries are classified under secondary batteries which means that the chemical reactions occurring in these kinds of cells are reversible. They are used in a variety of industries because of their nature but are mainly used as backup power supplies for alarms and smaller computer systems and electronic scooters, wheelchairs, bicycles, marine applications, electric vehicles, and hybrid vehicles.
How does a lead-acid battery work?
A lead-acid battery contains two electrodes and an electrolytic solution. The two electrodes are the negative electrode and the positive electrode. The negative electrode is made up of either spongy or porous lead whereas the positive electrode is made up of lead oxide. The electrolytic solution is made up of sulphuric acid and water. The electrodes are immersed in this electrolytic solution for the facilitation of the reaction. The reaction occurring in this charges up the battery for use. If the electrodes have somehow managed to come closer a chemically permeable membrane separates the two electrodes.
What are the characteristics of a lead-acid battery?
Several factors need to be considered while determining the true efficiency of a lead-acid battery. Renewable energy systems are mainly characterized according to the depth of discharge, the lifetime of the battery, maintenance, and efficiency.
Batteries are graded either as deep cycle or shallow cycle batteries. A deep cycle battery generally has a depth of discharge higher than a shallow battery. Therefore to achieve the same capacity a shallow cycle battery must have a larger capacity than a deep cycle battery. Moreover, the battery capacity is strongly affected by the discharge capacity of the battery and the opening capacity is very strongly affected by the discharge rate of the battery. Keep in mind that the battery capacity decreases by 1% per degree below 20 degrees celsius. It is also essential to keep the batteries in an area where they don’t receive direct heat as high temperatures accelerate the self-discharge and electrolyte usage rate.
Battery lifetime decreases in time due to sulfation of the battery and the shedding of active material. It mainly relies on the following factors:-
Proper maintenance should be carried out to increase battery life. The creation and removal of hydrogen and oxygen from the battery cause the loss of water. Therefore, the water in the batteries should be regularly replaced. It would be a better option to opt for maintenance-free batteries to limit the need for supervision and additional costs. However, due to the corrosion caused by the electrolyte, all batteries need to have an additional component for maintenance.
Lead-acid batteries in Dubai | Battery Master UAE
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